Authors

Fact Sheet Template

Use the standard fact sheet template of ISMA for easy uploading of text when creating fact sheets. The fact sheet template will enable authors to produce fact sheets containing the same type of information that is arranged in a consistent format.

Please download the Fact Sheet Template for Seed Identification Guide

 

How to fill the Factsheet Template

General Instruction:

  • Use plain English words as much as you can, considering end users who may or may not have botany training or are an international audience.
  • Please use standard terminologies for feature descriptions in the glossary of SIG or description charts for shape, surface texture, and colour.
  • Describe the features on dispersal units that would be considered typical for the species, i.e. mature, intact and exhibiting identifying features, but include observations on the range of natural variation.
  • The template sections are mandatory when labeled with “*”

Template section explanations and examples:

*Scientific Name:

Names for Family, Genus, Species, and Author using current names from reliable and reputable naming sources, e.g.,

Example:

Solanum carolinense L. (genus, species, and author)

Solanaceae (family name)

Synonym (s)

Optional, if synonyms add value for end users, e.g., newly changed names

Common Name(s):

Optional, if common name(s) adds value or convenience for end users. Language associated with the common name must be indicated.

Example:

horse-nettle (English)

morelle de la Caroline (French)

Regulation:

This field is for “Index Keywords”, which will aid in indexing, searching or sorting. It could be regulatory importance, special usages for stakeholders such as a sponsors’ or partners’ need.

Example: Canadian Weed Seeds Order; U.S. A. Federal Noxious Weed List

Accreditation:

This field is for “Index Keywords”, which will aid in indexing, searching or sorting.  It could be “Accreditation” importance, special usages for stakeholders such as a sponsors’ or partners’ need.

Example: Registered Seed Technology (RST)

*Distribution:  

Described species distribution information of the native or naturalized locations with references.

Examples: Native to eastern North America, from Ontario to northern Mexico, and introduced in Japan and India (Bassett and Munro 1986, USDA-ARS 2016).

Habitat and Crop Association:

General description of preferred growing conditions and habitat, and agricultural crop association since they may grow in similar conditions or same areas.

Example: Grows in cultivated fields, pastures, gardens, nurseries, riverbanks, roadsides and disturbed areas (Bassett and Munro 1986, Darbyshire 2003). Most frequently found in corn and grain fields, and to a lesser extent in pastures, alfalfa, potatoes, soybeans and tomatoes (Bassett and Munro 1986).

*Duration of Life Cycle:

 Botanical life cycle, i.e. from seeds to seeds cycle, as Annual, Biennial, Perennial.

*Dispersal Unit Type:

Botanical classification of a dispersal unit, if needed, e.g., A Systematic Treatment of Fruit Types (Spjut et al. 1994)

Fruit Feature Description:

Describe each type of fruit that could be a potential dispersal unit. The fruit session can be repeat by insert the table multiple times, e.g., one fruit table for floret, another one for caryopsis.

 

Fruit Botanical Name:

Botanical classification of a dispersal unit, if needed, e.g., A Systematic Treatment of Fruit Types (Spjut et al. 1994).

Size:

Size measurements of fruit under description to one or two decimal places in millimeters or centimeters.

The method of the measurement shall be specified e.g., using the ISMA Seed Size Measurement Protocol, including the number of seeds measured. Usually a size range should be provided.

Example:

Spikelet length: 5.9 – 8.3 mm; width: 1.5 - 2.8 mm (average of 20 spikelets measured)

Shape:

Provide sufficient feature shape description (e.g., shape in 2-D and 3-D views) and their potential variations for the dispersal unit. Reference the Seed Shape Chart, selecting the closest shape to describe.

Surface Texture:

Reference the Seed Surface Feature Chart for core features with further description for individual cases.

Colour:

Describe colour(s) along with any colour patterns, and light reflections, e.g., dull or shine. Reference the Seed Colour Chart, selecting the closest colour to describe the dispersal unit.

Other Features:

  • Special structures of dispersal units, often specific to a plant family, e.g., style appendage, pappus, and aril.
  • Describe based on non-specific orientation, rather than specific, such as base or apex. For example, the end containing aril.

Example: achene of Cirsium arvense

  • Narrow pale collar at the top of the achene
  • Immature achenes can have plumose pappus hairs

Seed Feature Description:

Size:

Size measurements of seed under description to one or two decimal places in millimeters or centimeters.

The method of the measurement shall be specified e.g., using the ISMA Seed Size Measurement Protocol, including the number of seeds measured.

Example:

Length: 1.7 – 2.8 mm; width: 1.4 - 2.1 mm; thickness: 0.02 mm (average of 20 seeds measured)

Shape:

Provide sufficient feature shape description (e.g., shape in 2-D and 3-D views) and their potential variations for the dispersal unit. Reference the  Seed Shape Chart, selecting the closest shape to describe.

Surface Texture:

Reference the  Seed Surface Feature Chart for core features with further description for individual cases.

Colour :

Describe colour(s) along with any colour patterns and light reflections, e.g., dull or shine. Reference the  Seed Colour Chart, selecting the closest colour to describe the seed.

Other Features:

Describe special structures of seed, often specific to a plant family, e.g., hilum.

Describe based on non-specific orientation, rather than specific, such as base or apex. For example, the end containing the hilum

Example: Hilum is a 0.5 mm long teardrop-shaped slit along the edge near one end of the seed.

Embryo and Endosperm Feature Description

Embryo Size:  

Size description of embryo, it could be qualitative description relative to the seed size.

Examples:

Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense): embryo fills approximately half the seed interior

Wheat (Triticum aestivum): embryo much smaller than the caryopsis, confined to one end.

Embryo Shape:

General description of the shape of embryo, e.g., Linear, curved, oval shaped.

Endosperm:

Endosperm present or absent, endosperm’s position, or other special features.

Example:

Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense): endosperm fleshy and semi-transparent

Wheat (Triticum aestivum): endosperm hard, opaque white

Other Features:

Additional features that are not be covered in above.

Example:

Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense): embryo inside the seed

Wheat (Triticum aestivum): embryo visible from the outside of the caryopsis

Additional Botany Information:

Flowers:

 For particular botanical features of flowers and general botanical information associated with seed identification.

Other features:

Identification Tips:

Use for any identification considerations such as: variation in morphology, reliable features, difficulties and precautions.

Example: The grooved reticulation of Solanum carolinense seed surface is unusual; commonly found Solanum spp. seeds have ridged reticulation. Seeds may appear smooth under low magnification.

General Information:

other information related to the species that could be interesting to end users.

Example: Solanum carolinense may produce up to 5000 seeds per plant. The seeds are apparently spread through livestock manure and the berries and horizontal roots are spread as a result of harvesting operations (Bassett and Munro 1986, CABI 2016).

*Similar Species:

  • Select morphologically similar species based on needs (e.g., likelihood to be found in samples).
  • Consider using more effective display style, e.g., bullet points.
  • A comparison chart can be developed if there are many similar species or if separation is difficult.
  • Similar species will be linked to their ID fact sheets, if available.

Reference

Reference Style in Text:

All citations in the text should refer to:

  • Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
  • Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
  • Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et aI.' and the year of publication.

Example:

“….as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et aI. (2000) have recently shown ...."

Reference List:

References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

Example:

Reference a journal:

Abbott, L. B., Lepar, D. and Daniel, D. L. 2007. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of African rue (Peganum harmala) in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. The Southwestern Naturalist 52 (2): 209-218.

Boyd, J. W. and Murray, D. S. 1982. Growth and development of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium). Weed Science 30 (3): 238-243.

Reference a book:

Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. Ottawa, ON.

Reference a chapter in an edited book:

Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281-304.

Reference online materials:

The Flora of North America Association. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 19+ vols. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. New York and Oxford, http://www.fna.org/FNA/ [Access date: 2018, October 4]. (Recommended with the website)

Reference an online database:

USDA-ARS 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomybrowse.aspx?language=en

*Author(s)

Authored by: First name Last name, Organization name and address, correspondence author email.

Example: Dave Smith, International Seed Morphology Association, Suite 301, 666 Super Road, Post Code, Country, dave.smith@idseed.org